NANOHARD 2009 is the forth forum organized for knowledge dissemination in the field of nanostructured materials, thin films, hard and superhard coatings for advanced applications. Organization of NANOHARD scientific events started in 2005 at the support of the European Commission, Project INCO-CT-2005-016805 RTCNANOHARD. Two international workshops and one conference have been carried out since 2005.

Geographic Location:
Bulgaria is located in South-eastern Europe. To the North it borders on Romania, to the East - on the Black sea, to the South - on Turkey and Greece, to the West - on Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia.

Surface: 110 912 sq. km.
Population: 7. 93 million. (2001 census)
Country Name: Republic of Bulgaria
Government type: Parliamentary democracy
Capital: Sofia (1.2 million inhabitants)
Official Language: Bulgarian, alphabet - Cyrillic
Religion: East Orthodox Christians (83,8%), Muslims (12,1%), others (4.1%)
Time Zone: GMT (London) + 2 hours, Central European Time (CET), (Paris, Rome) + 1 hour
Electric Power: 220 V, 50 Hz


Location: The town of Sozopol has population of about 7,000 people and is situated in 31 km south of Bourgas. The town lies on a small rocky peninsula in the farthest southern part of the Bourgas Bay. A one hundred-metre long strip of land connects it to the mainland. From 1925 on, the town has expanded in the direction of the Harmanite Area (the so-called 'new town').

Weather: In May, the weather in Sozopol is agreeable with maximum temperatures around 20°C but one would normally need a warm evening dress.

History: The earliest settlements in the area belonged to the Thracian tribes of Nipsei and Skirimian. In the 7th century BC Greek colonisers settled there and called the town after their god of Apollo, Apolonia. To the honour of Apollo, a sculptor named Kalamis carried out the construction of a thirteen-meter high bronze statute of the god. Apolonia was included in the territory of the Macedonian State at the time of Alexander the Great. It was frequently subject to, but warded off, invasions of Nomads. The town fell under Roman domination in the 1st century BC after it was severely ruined by the armies of Marcus Lucul. It was only in the 5th century that the town was included in the territory of Byzantium. During the reign of Khan Kroum it was within the borders of Bulgaria and like all other sea towns it frequently changed hands between Bulgaria and Byzantium. After a long siege the town fell under Turkish rule in 1453. A small fishermen's settlement at the time of the Liberation, Sozopol gradually became the biggest fishing center of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which also developed a tourism industry.

Useful links:


Sozopol is situated on the Black Sea coast in 30 km Southern of Bourgas and ~ 40 km of the Burgas Airport. Below is the map of Sozopol (New Town) showing the bus stops for buses arriving from Sofia and Bourgas. It takes 5 minutes walk from any one of these stops to the Hotel of Bulbank.

The most convenient way is to arrive in Bulgaria at the Sofia Airport, the Varna Airport or the Bourgas Airport. Sozopol can be reached from these airports by train, bus or car.


There is regular transport from the Bourgas Airport to Bourgas (12 km) (bus No. 15) and from the Bus Station “Jug” (in Bulgarian: “Jug”) to Sozopol (31 km).
The buses from the Bus Station “Jug” of Bourgas are leaving to Sozopol every hour starting at 6:00 a.m. until 8:00 p.m.
From the Bourgas Airport one can take a taxi to Sozopol. All taxi cars are metered and the taxi driver is obliged to give you a bill. (N.B. It is important to agree the price in advance before the travelling.) The bill is printed and should contain the company name, the driver name, rate per km, total run in km, and total amount to pay.)


From the Varna Airport one can take the bus shuttle to Varna (9 km). Daily there are several buses from Varna to Bourgas (160 km). Alternatively, one can choose to take a taxi from the Varna Airport (or Varna) directly to Sozopol (200 km). In this case, it is advisable to agree on a fare with the driver before the departure (max. about 160 BGN).


If you arrive in Sofia by a plane, the fastest way to get to the Central Railway Station / Central Bus Station is by a taxi. Daily there are several trains to Bourgas. The price for an one-way train ticket is 20–26 BGN and the trip takes about 7 hours. The timetable is available on the web page of the Sofia Railway Station.
Daily there are several buses to Bourgas. The timetable is available on the web page of the Sofia Bus Station. The trip costs 24–28 BGN one-way and takes 6-7 hours with a 30 min coffee stop midway. The end stop of most of the lines is Bus Station “Jug” of Bourgas. If your bus has a different end stop, you must take a taxi to Bus Station “Jug” in order to take a bus to Sozopol. There are also direct buses from Sofia to Sozopol (see the web page of the Sofia Bus Station). Most buses are air-conditioned.

Useful links :

1.Sofia Airport

2.Varna Airport

3.Bourgas Airport

4. Sofia Railway Station

5. Sofia Bus Station

6. Buses to Sozopol from Varna or Bourgas


Entering the Country:
European Union citizens, as well as citizens of Iceland, South Korea, Estonia, Malta, Monaco, Norway, San Marino, Hungary and Switzerland with valid international passports can spend up to 90 days in Bulgaria without a visa. Citizens of Tunisia with valid international passports can spend up to 60 days in Bulgaria without a visa. Citizens of Australia, Andorra, the Vatican, Israel, Canada, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Latvia, Macedonia, New Zealand, Poland, USA, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Serbia and Monte Negro, Slovenia, Romania and Croatia with valid international passports can spend up to 30 days in Bulgaria without a visa. For more information contact the Bulgarian embassies and consulates in the respective country.

Custom Formalities:
Passenger is any natural person crossing the state border of the Republic of Bulgaria.
When crossing the state border of the Republic of Bulgaria, passengers may import and export non-commercial goods, in terms of quality, kind and value. These do not include consumption goods and personal belongings.

Tobacco articles (for passengers over 16) - cigarettes - 200 items or other tobacco products • 250 grams;
Alcohol (for passengers over 16) - 2 liters of wine, 1 liter of alcoholic beverages;

Other beverages: coffee-extract - 200 grams;
tea - 100 grams; tea - exact - 40 grams;
Perfumes - 50 ml., toilet water - 250 ml.

Currency Unit:
Bulgarian Lev (BGN). 1 lev = 100 stotinki. Presently coins in circulation are of nominal values 1,2,5, 10, 20, 50 stotinki and 1 lev, The banknotes are 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 leva.
Money Exchange: The Lev
BGN is pegged to the Euro. The current Lev-Euro exchange rate is around 1 EURO : 1.95 BGN. You may change cash in any bank or bureau de change, most of which are open on weekends. Euro-checks may be cashed at most banks. Credit Cards: Visa, Master Card, American Express and Diners Club are accepted by most big hotels, as well as some shops and catering establishments.

Medical Services:
Foreigners arriving to Bulgaria are not required to have any compulsory immunizations. All medical establishments in the country perform medical checks, tests and treatment of foreigners. Foreigners pay for the medical services in exchange of an invoice in Bulgarian Leva in cash at the cash desk of the medical establishment or else with a bank transfer from abroad.

Persons visiting Bulgaria as tourists or guests may be insured. Insurance of foreign citizens is normally included in the tourist packages of the Bulgarian tour-operators. Foreign tourists may also enter Bulgaria with insurances by foreign insurance companies.